Wetlands is the name given to sites which are waterlogged for the majority of the year such as marshes, wet grasslands and bogs. Similarly, some ponds can be wet for most of the year but dry up in some months.
Swamps are areas of mineral-based soil which tend to flood during the growing season.
Marshes occur in areas which are waterlogged, the soil also has a high mineral content. Small marshes occur in drier surroundings below springs, dams or seepage lines where the soil is waterlogged. Swamps tend to be reedswamp communities along with other plants such as bulrush (Schoenoplectus lacustris), great reedmace (Typha latifolia) and branched bur-reed (Sparganium erectum). Marshes also have these plants as well as trees such as lder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), grey willow (Salix atrocinerea), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus).
Wet grasslands are very diverse, there are four common types: flood meadows, washes, water meadows, and wet heaths and acid grasslands.
Flood meadows tend to persist in areas which regularly flood or part of a marsh, scrub or wet woodland.
Washes are artificial flood meadows with the aim to control drainage and flood prevention. Washes have a variety of flora and are the perfect winter spot for wildlife such as wildfowl and shorebirds.
Water meadows tend to occur in chalk stream valleys. They are built to be overflow for waterways.
Wet heaths and acid grasslands occur near to wetlands and bogs.
Water supply to ponds, lakes or wetlands is subject to regulation, unless filled by ground water or surface run-off. Therefore, Glorious Woodlands will make sure a licence is obtained from the Environment agency. Also, your local planning authority may have to give planning permission depending on their regulations. As with most regulations, areas which are considered significant such as SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) will have their own regulations.
Wet woodlands occur on land which floods seasonally and is dominated by trees such as willow, alder and birch. A wet woodland can be found in a small area of a larger woodland. Wet woodlands create an important habitat for wildlife including plants such as remote sedge (Carex remota) and yellow pimpernel (Lysimachia nemorum). The high humidity areas are perfect for mosses and ferns. The ecological benefits of wet woodland with dead wood means this habitat supports rare wildlife. Wildlife found in wet woodlands includes birds such as willow tits, marsh tits, siskins and crossbill, mammals such as bats as well as lots of insects and amphibians.